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Figure Frequency table of income categories The frequency table for income categories is displayed. This frequency table shows the number and percentage of people in each income category. Creating Charts Although some statistical procedures can create charts, you can also use the Graphs menu to create charts. For example, you can create a chart that shows the relationship between wireless telephone service and PDA personal digital assistant ownership. Click the Gallery tab if it is not selected.

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Click Bar if it is not selected. Drag the Clustered Bar icon onto the canvas, which is the large area above the Gallery. Drag the Wireless service [wireless] variable to the x axis. Drag the Owns PDA [ownpda] variable to the cluster drop zone in the upper right corner of the canvas. Click OK to create the chart. The chart shows that people with wireless phone service are far more likely to have PDAs than people without wireless service. You can edit charts and tables by double-clicking them in the contents pane of the Viewer window, and you can copy and paste your results into other applications.

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Those topics will be covered later. The processes for reading data stored in IBM SPSS Statistics data files; spreadsheet applications, such as Microsoft xcel; database applications, such as Microsoft Access; and text files are all discussed in this chapter. In this data file, cases represent individual respondents to a survey. Variables represent responses to each question asked in the survey.


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To open demo. Browse to and open demo. Figure Opened data file Reading Data from Spreadsheets Rather than typing all of your data directly into the Data ditor, you can read data from applications such as Microsoft xcel. You can also read column headings as variable names. Open demo. For more information, see the topic Sample Files in Appendix A on p The Opening xcel Data Source dialog box is displayed, allowing you to specify whether variable names are to be included in the spreadsheet, as well as the cells that you want to import. In xcel 95 or later, you can also specify which worksheets you want to import.

Figure Opening xcel Data Source dialog box. This option reads column headings as variable names.


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  7. If the column headings do not conform to the IBM SPSS Statistics variable-naming rules, they are converted into valid variable names and the original column headings are saved as variable labels. If you want to import only a portion of the spreadsheet, specify the range of cells to be imported in the Range text box. Click OK to read the xcel file. The data now appear in the Data ditor, with the column headings used as variable names. Since variable names can t contain spaces, the spaces from the original column headings have been removed.

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    For example, Marital status in the xcel file becomes the variable Maritalstatus. The original column heading is retained as a variable label. Additional drivers can be obtained from third-party vendors.

    One of the most common database applications, Microsoft Access, is discussed in this example. Note: Depending on your installation, you may also see a list of OLDB data sources on the left side of the wizard Windows operating systems only , but this example uses the list of ODBC data sources displayed on the right side. In the next step, you can specify the tables and variables that you want to import. Figure Select Data step. Click Next. In the next step, you select which records cases to import.

    Figure Limit Retrieved Cases step If you do not want to import all cases, you can import a subset of cases for example, males older than 30 , or you can import a random sample of cases from the data source. For large data sources, you may want to limit the number of cases to a small, representative sample to reduce the processing time. Click Next to continue. If necessary, the names are converted to valid variable names. The original field names are preserved as variable labels. You can also change the variable names before importing the database.

    This option converts string variables to integer variables and retains the original value as the value label for the new variable. This statement can be executed now or saved to a file for later use. Figure Results step Click Finish to import the data. Many spreadsheet programs and databases can save their contents in one of many text file formats. Comma- or tab-delimited files refer to rows of data that use commas or tabs to indicate each variable. In this example, the data are tab delimited.

    For more information, see the topic Sample Files in Appendix A on p. Figure Text Import Wizard: Step 1 of 6 In Step 1, you can choose a predefined format or create a new format in the wizard.

    Select No to indicate that a new format should be created. Also, the variable names are defined on the top line of this file. Figure Text Import Wizard: Step 2 of 6 Select Delimited to indicate that the data use a delimited formatting structure.


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    Select Yes to indicate that variable names should be read from the top of the file. Figure Text Import Wizard: Step 3 of 6 Keep the default values for the remainder of this dialog box, and click Next to continue. For example, it s safe to assume that the income variable is meant to contain a certain dollar amount. To change a data type: Under Data preview, select the variable you want to change, which is Income in this case. Figure Change the data type Click Next to continue. The information in the Data ditor consists of variables and cases. In Data View, columns represent variables, and rows represent cases observations.

    In Variable View, each row is a variable, and each column is an attribute that is associated with that variable. Variables are used to represent the different types of data that you have compiled. A common analogy is that of a survey. The response to each question on a survey is equivalent to a variable.

    Variables come in many different types, including numbers, strings, currency, and dates. Click the Variable View tab at the bottom of the Data ditor window.

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    You need to define the variables that will be used. In this case, only three variables are needed: age, marital status, andincome. In the second row, type marital. In the third row, type income. New variables are automatically given a Numeric data type. If you don t enter variable names, unique names are automatically created. However, these names are not descriptive and are not recommended for large data files.

    Click the Data View tab to continue entering the data. The names that you entered in Variable View are now the headings for the first three columns in Data View. Figure Values entered in Data View In the age column, type In the marital column, type 1. In the income column, type Move the cursor to the second row of the first column to add the next subject s data. In the age column, type In the marital column, type 0. In the income column, type Currently, the age and marital columns display decimal points, even though their values are intended to be integers. To hide the decimal points in these variables: Click the Variable View tab at the bottom of the Data ditor window.

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    In the Decimals column of the age row, type 0 to hide the decimal. Figure Updated decimal property for age and marital ntering String Data Non-numeric data, such as strings of text, can also be entered into the Data ditor. In the first cell of the first empty row, type sex for the variable name. Click the Type cell next to your entry.

    Figure ButtonshowninTypecellforsex Select String to specify the variable type. Click OK to save your selection and return to the Data ditor.