As well as looking after the soil for future generations to come, such as the burning of paddocks after crop production. As well as pasture [management] Techniques include no- tilling crops, planting of soil-binding grasses along contours on steep slopes, and contour drains of depths up to 1 metre.
Agroecology is the management of agricultural systems with an emphasis on ecological and environmental perspectives. Theoretical production ecology tries to quantitatively study the growth of crops. The plant is treated as a kind of biological factory, which processes light , carbon dioxide , water , and nutrients into harvestable products. The main parameters considered are temperature, sunlight, standing crop biomass, plant production distribution, and nutrient and water supply. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Soybean Physiology, Agronomy, and Utilization
The pattern of K distribution in different plant parts of maize and soybean is presented in Fig. Large fluctuations were noted for K concentration in root, straw and seed of maize and soybean under all treatments. Maize showed mean maximum K concentrations in their root Whereas, the mean maximum root 3. However, among locations, the average highest K concentration in root Potassium allocation in root, straw, and seed of maize and soybean at various locations Yaan, Renshou, and Lezhi under different planting patterns.
The average values for total nutrient uptake TNU exhibited that different planting patterns and locations had significant impact on TNU of maize and soybean Fig. However, the planting pattern, SI Total nutrient uptake TPU of maize and soybean at various locations Yaan, Renshou, and Lezhi under different planting patterns. Among locations, maximum seed yield The mean maximum seed yield of soybean was noted in SS However, among locations, the average highest seed yields of soybean were recorded for Renshou Overall, the LER under different planting patterns and locations ranged from 1.
Soybean Physiology, Agronomy, and Utilization (Electronic book text)
Higher nutrient acquisition under intercropping system confirmed the advantage of this system over sole cropping which resulted to highest dry matter accumulation DMA and yield. Since different planting patterns significantly influence the light environment under intercropping systems, and mutual shading considerably affects the productivity of intercrops because sun-light plays a vital role in increasing the photosynthetic rate and biomass yield 29 , In our experiment, different planting patterns exhibited a significant effect on the DMA of maize and soybean, and highest DMA of maize and soybean was recorded in SI and SII, respectively that was probably due to the optimum planting space, light availability and nutrients availability for maize and soybean.
Our findings are similar to the previously published literature in which they concluded that DMA in maize and soybean under MS R significantly affected by changing the planting pattern and light interception 9 , Furthermore, the maximum DMA of maize and soybean in both study years would have been due to the adequate uptake of major nutrients 31 during the life period of crops because improved major nutrient uptake directly increased the intercrop dry matter production 3. Among locations, the highest DMA at Renshou as compared to Yaan and Lezhi was may be due to the favorable cropping conditions i.
Cereal and legume planting together is a common agricultural phenomenon in many parts of the world However, less consideration has been given to major nutrient behavior among plant parts of intercrop species in their intercropping mixtures. In this study, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations among plant parts of maize and soybean varied with the planting patterns and locations, but their accumulation patterns were different in all treatments.
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Different planting patterns significantly affected the root, straw, and seed nitrogen concentration of maize and soybean, which might be linked to the high and low nitrogen requirement of maize and soybean, respectively in all three plant parts in different planting conditions 34 , In cereal-legume intercropping systems, it is possible that the maize cereal accumulated nitrogen that was released by soybean legume root and root nodule-system, resulting from efficient utilization of nutrients 36 , 37 , 38 , Additionally, in our experiment nitrogen concentration in roots, straw, and seeds of maize and soybean in sole maize SM and sole soybean SS was higher as compared to those plants under SI and SII at all locations, suggesting that intercropping mixtures reduced the nitrogen accumulation amount in root, straw, and seed Fig.
Similar to our results, Gou et al.
However, the nitrogen concentration differences between relay-cropped maize and sole cropped maize were smaller as compared to soybean Fig. It might be caused by the strong nitrogen acquisition ability of neighboring deep-root cereal species maize, whose root hair system intermingled with the soybean roots and acquired more legume-derived nitrogen 40 , Importantly, soybean plants significantly accumulated higher amounts of nitrogen in SII than SI which is might be due to the better growing conditions and availability of nutrients because increasing distance between maize and soybean rows reduced the maize shade 23 , increased the light transmittance on soybean canopy 11 and decreased competition for the accumulation of nitrogen 8 which significantly enhanced the concentration of N in soybean under MS R.
Consequently, increased number of plants under intercropping conditions would reduce the phosphorus reallocation, limiting soybean phosphorus acquisition and concentration in different plant parts of soybean These dissimilarities with what was estimated that phosphorus uptake would be increased in both cereals and legumes in their intercropping stands because pH decreased in soil-rhizosphere, and phosphorus activities in roots i.
Unfortunately, in this experiment, we have not determined the phosphatase activity and soil-rhizosphere pH in the roots and soil. Similarly, it may also be caused due to the border row effects in MS R because previously scientists have confirmed that the border row wheat plants had higher nitrogen and phosphorus uptake than those of under sole cropping system 3 , Therefore, higher accumulation of phosphorus in maize and soybean is might be due the improved light conditions and growing space for intercrop species under SII narrow wide row planting pattern than SI.
In this paper, we also measured the differences of potassium uptake and distribution in different plant parts of maize and soybean under MS R in response to different planting patterns at different locations Fig. The potassium concentration in maize plants was generally higher as compared to soybean plants. However, the smaller amount of potassium uptake was recorded in relay-cropped maize and soybean plants than those with under SM and SS, which indicates the interspecific competition between maize and soybean.
On contrary to our findings, higher potassium uptake in intercropped wheat was reported under wheat-maize intercropping system 3. The different planting patterns significantly affected the potassium uptake in soybean, and planting pattern SII increased the uptake of potassium in soybean. It might be due to the better planting space and arrangement that enhanced the potassium accumulation ability of soybean plants by ameliorating the negative effects of competition and maize shading 4. Results of our experiment confirm that different planting patterns significantly affected the nutrient uptake ability of intercrop species, differences in nutrient acquisition K between MS R and sole cropping system by soybean plants Fig.
Overall, the higher N and P concentrations in seed than in other parts and the higher K concentration in straw than root and seed of maize and soybean, could be described by the competition among plant parts for N, P, and K demand for plant growth, and the advantage of that plant part may have for being adjacent to source of nutrient.elrachofer.tk
Soybean Physiology, Agronomy, and Utilization - 1st Edition
This is because N, P, and K are distributed to distant parts after the request of adjacent parts to a nutrient source are met Conversely, this challenges the results from shrubs, where the nutrient content in roots enhanced in equivalent with the stem and leaves Nutrient distribution is also controlled by the crop and plant part request for nitrogen-rich proteins and phosphorus-rich RNAs Extra nitrogen and phosphorus distribution to the leaf are important to maintain the photosynthesis process efficiency and photo-assimilate remobilization In arid areas or drought years , a high nitrogen content in leaf may provide adaptation to water scarce conditions and competition by exploiting the greater sunlight availability 45 , 49 , Previously, it has been reported that nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency were greatly reduced by decrease in light intensity 47 , 51 , 52 , Therefore, these experiments were carried out to determine the effects of different planting patterns on total nutrient uptake of maize and soybean at different locations.
The findings of the present study reported here demonstrate that total nutrient uptake TNU in soybean was increased by increasing the distance between maize and soybean rows under MS R. Results were similar with previous findings in which scientists reported that nutrients uptake increased in lupin Lupinus albus L. Moreover, higher light photosynthetically active radiations intensity improved the distribution pattern of major nutrients in crops which significantly increased the dry matter production This increase might be due to the optimum availability and utilization of major nutrients N, P, and K as these nutrients increased the yield and yield related parameters 8 , 55 , Further, our results exhibited that increasing the distance between maize and soybean rows i.
Total LER values were always higher than one in both planting patterns in MS R at all locations, which exhibits the yield benefit of MS R over sole cropping due to the better utilization of land and environmental resources for crop growth and development These results are in line with those of Yang et al. Similarly, Liu et al. Similarly, in many previous investigations, it has been proved that the values of CR were always higher than soybean 12 , Moreover, higher competitive ability of maize crop to exploit and use available resources i. Whereas, in pea-rye intercropping the partial values of CRp of legume pea were greater than cereal rye 64 , which was the different trend which we observed as cereal maize was more aggressive and competitive than legume soybean.
In our experiment, relay-cropped maize and soybean under different planting patterns had accumulated lower nutrient N, P, and K than those of under SM and SS. However, the differences in nutrient uptake and distribution among different plant parts for soybean between relay-cropped and sole cropped plants were larger than maize plants under SI and SII planting patterns.