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The left ventricle major blood vessels were segmented and measured. Oxygen concentration profile was calculated based on Fick's second law, Michaelis—Menten equations and the following data: Maximum cellular O 2 consumption rate of 5. The model was then supplemented with blood vessels, ensuring that no region reach critical oxygen concentration 2. Cell number and viability were determined by a hemocytometer and trypan blue exclusion assay. Bioinks Preparation : Omenta were decellularized as previously described. Next, tissues were frozen and thawed three times in the hypotonic buffer.

Then, the tissue was washed four times with PBS pH 7.

The tissue was washed thoroughly with PBS and incubated in 1. Subsequently, pH was adjusted to 7. The concentrated gel 2. The solution was then filtered by 0. Support Medium Preparation : For the generation of the printing support medium, an aqueous solution containing 0. This results in a slow decrease in the pH and solubilization of the calcium carbonate and liberation of the calcium ion that crosslinks the alginate.

When the solution's viscosity is increased to a level that prevents precipitation of the calcium carbonate, the stirring was stopped and the mixture was incubated at RT for 24 h. The homogenate was centrifuged at 15 g for 20 min. The bioinks were extruded through 30G needles onto glass slides. First, the CMs cell laden omentum gel was extruded in a crisscross geometry, creating the two lower layers of the patch. The third layer was composed of omentum gel, creating the supporting walls between which ECs laden gelatin ink was deposited to generate the vascular network.

On top, two layers of crisscross CMs cell laden omentum gel were extruded, encapsulating the printed vessels. Printing in a Support Bath : Support medium was transferred into a transparent, open sterile plastic box immediately prior to printing. The cellularized constructs were printed using two omentum bioinks containing CMs and ECs. Dan Peer, Tel Aviv University.

The printed construct was then cultured O. Representative images from at least three different experiments were chosen. Cardiac patches were then washed in culture medium and imaged using an inverted fluorescence microscope. Antibodies for Vimentin A, were acquired from Invitrogen. Analyses were performed using GraphPad prism version 6. The authors would like to thank Dr. Dan Peer for the fluorescent liposomes and to Hadas Oved for decellularizing the hearts. The work is part of the doctoral thesis of N.

The cell biology of acute myocardial ischemia.

Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries other than missing content should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. Volume 6 , Issue The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.

Advanced Science Volume 6, Issue Full Paper Open Access. Tal Dvir Corresponding Author E-mail address: tdvir tauex. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access.

The Training Program in Cardiac & Vascular Cell Biology

Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Generation of thick vascularized tissues that fully match the patient still remains an unmet challenge in cardiac tissue engineering. Concept schematic. An omentum tissue is extracted from the patient and while the cells are separated from the matrix, the latter is processed into a personalized thermoresponsive hydrogel.

The cells are reprogrammed to become pluripotent and are then differentiated to cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, followed by encapsulation within the hydrogel to generate the bioinks used for printing. The bioinks are then printed to engineer vascularized patches and complex cellularized structures. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Bioinks characterization. A human omentum a before and b after decellularization. Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.

  • Tel Aviv University scientists print first 3D heart using patient's biological materials.
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Imaging of the heart and patch modeling. CT image of a a human heart and b left ventricle coronary arteries. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. The white arrow represents signal direction. Dashed, white line highlights the borders of the patch. Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Printing the personalized hydrogel in a supporting medium. Then, the structure can be safely extracted by an enzymatic or chemical degradation process of the support material and transferred into growth medium for culturing.

Figure 6 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Printing thick vascularized tissues.

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Acknowledgements N. Conflict of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Supporting Information Filename Description advssupS1. References 1 W. Members , E. Benjamin , M.

Program Director

Blaha , S. Chiuve , M. Cushman , S. Das , R. Deo , S. Floyd , M.

NHLBI Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium (PCBC)

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Citing Literature. This is suggested to be a consequence of the release of pro-proliferative molecules by T regulatory cells. Further investigations will be required to confirm the pro-proliferative effects of T regulatory cells; however, the findings add to our understanding of cardiac biology during pregnancy and suggest potential ways to boost cardiac repair. Original article.

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